Pawel Jankowski, MD. Hoag (Newport Beach, Calif.): Three areas:

1. Preoperative planning resources to minimize mechanical and instrumentation failures post-op that avoid further surgeries.

2. Artificial intelligence-assisted technologies that help surgeons account for changes in the non-treated segments of the spine, whether this be after instrumented fusion procedures or decompression.

3. Preoperative functional assessment tests that are quantitative to help discern which patients will be able to successfully undergo and recover from surgery. These tests also will help prepare patients to have successful outcomes if they have failed, so that they can be placed in the operative cohorts to achieve a successful outcome.